A written assignment (making effective use of case studies provided as supportive evidence) that compares and contrasts a range of developmental theories and discusses how these impact on the current provision and practice used in working with children in

A written assignment (making effective use of case studies provided as supportive evidence) that compares and contrasts a range of developmental theories and discusses how these impact on the current provision and practice used in working with children in
Instructions: Case study 1
Marco is 8 months old and shows interest in the large basket of fun stuff his granny has put together for him. He carefully reaches into the basket with his right hand and grasps a wooden spoon which he immediately starts to bang on the side of the basket. After a while he lets go of the spoon and with his left hand he reaches for a chunky string of beads which he takes into both hands and explores, drops, picks up again and then starts to mouth.
Case study 2
Maria is 9 and her sister is 7. Their parents have tried to give both girls similar opportunities and experiences and they share their time and affections equally between them. Friends of the family and teachers comment on how different the sisters are. Maria is average height but a bit under- weight for her age and has blond hair. She enjoys playing with her friends and is keen on swimming and gymnastics. Helena is tall for her age with brown hair and she prefers reading at home to going to activities and clubs. She has few friends and feels awkward in the company of adults, too.
Case study 3
Cassidy is a very outgoing three-year-old little girl. She is very thoughtful and loving. Cassidy attends a children’s centre where she has numerous friends.
She is average I height and weight for age but she has poor posture and an awkward gait. Cassidy has some delay and ‘difference’ in her gross and fine motor development as she has spina bifida. She is able desperate to learn to ride one of the big tricycles in the setting but cannot manage this by herself. She feeds herself with an adapted spoon but struggles with some aspects of dressing, so needs a lot of help. She can zip, unzip and button her coat without assistance. She really enjoys creative and imagine art and craft activities but often goes into that are of the nursery to find there are few resources she feels comfortable using.
Case Study 4
Jane is ten and the smallest regular user of the Out of School Hours Activities Club (OSH). These are 3 examples of observations gathered during her last visits.
Jane in the adventure play area: standing on the platform for about 15 minutes, waiting for a chance to swing on the rope. Six larger children continue to dominate the rope and Jane finally gives up and climbs down from the platform.
Jane showing an interest in the needlework project started by a group of mixed gender children. She looks on but turns down an invitation to pull up a chair around the table.
A group of girls have started to plan a football game and as it is about to start, Jane turns down an invitation to join them. She is overheard saying ‘That is for boys’
Case Study 5
Craig is 15 now and he attends a Special Unit attached to a School. Attendees have behaviour problems of some kind, and many of them have been involved in petty crime of one sort or another. Craig has had a particularly rough time in fifteen short years; his home life was grim. He lives with a foster family at the moment, but he sees his father every two weeks or so. His mother has infrequent contact. There was a lot of violence in the family, not just from his parents, but from his uncle who lived with them and who was involved in a range of petty criminal activities. Craig says that sometimes everything would be calm, and there would be toys and lots to eat; at other times a slice of bread and jam would be all he got in a day, and his dad would be shouting and hitting out for no reason. Then he’d come home from whichever school he was attending at the time, and there would a couple of vans outside the house, and the family would be off. They moved constantly.
Schooling was equally erratic and inconsistent. Craig feels he was never in one place long enough to build up any relationship with a teacher, and he became increasingly disruptive. He said that he would throw a chair, or shout, or kick something. He didn’t know why, he just couldn’t concentrate in class for more than a few minutes at a time. Consequently, he was often being sent out, or made to endure punishments like sitting with his back to the class.
Craig’s parents gave him only vague parameters for normal activities, like meal-times or bedtime. By the time he was about nine, he had joined a small gang of boys a bit older than him, in one of the flats where he was living (they lived there for nearly a year). He said he would stay out till late, or until his mother came out looking for him. She would hit him for being late, but he had no idea what late meant! The gang got involved with a bit of shop-lifting and Craig found that was something he was good at, and which other people wanted him for. His ‘friends’ often let him down, discarding him when he wasn’t wanted, but Craig felt he only had them. By the time he was twelve, he really believed that he was ‘too thick to learn’. He decided that he may as well give up, and became involved in a downward spiral of minor criminal activities.
Case study 6
Tina (Tim’s mum) explains: “Tim was really late to start talking although he was always ‘switched on’ showing that he understood everything around. His lack of speech did get in the way of making himself understood and seemed to be impacting on his behaviour. He was nearly three before he first began talking with simple words which then developed over time. At home we could understand what Tim was saying, but staff and the children in his nursery were really struggling to understand him because of his stammer and unclear articulation. Tim often played by himself and rarely played in the role play area or with the cars on the carpet with the other children. Tim’s key worker and the SENCO at the setting asked us in for a meeting. They explained some of the delays I his development and showed us some of the special activities and how they had been trying to develop his speech through play, but they suggested that it might be a good idea for Tim to be referred to a speech and language therapist. We all agreed this was important because we were concerned that Tim would be moving to ‘big boy school’ after the summer holidays and that would be a big change for him.”
“The speech and language therapist did assessments of Tim’s abilities and difficulties though play and games. As well as working directly with Tim, a lot of the early sessions focused on how we, as parents and staff in the nursery, could help Tim with talking. The speech therapist helped identify the common words and phrases that caused him particular problems. She also looked at the other demands and pressure that Tim could be under, such as exterior demands, like learning other skills, and internal demands, like struggling with his inability to express himself properly.”
“All of this was very helpful to us and gave us all a better framework for helping Tim at home and in the nursery. Changes weren’t instantaneous, but we did begin to notice improvements after six to eight weeks of sessions,” explains Tina.
“Tim’s now better able to pronounce some of the more tricky sounds and is much easier to understand. Tim really responded well to the early intervention and it worked wonders on his behaviour both at home and in the nursery. He does go back for occasional sessions, which are now dealing with boosting his confidence up about talking in front of other people, but you wouldn’t really know he ever had a speech problem.”
Tina says Tim is still a bit difficult to understand but she is less worried about him now moving up to reception in his new school.
Tina (Tim’s mum) explains:
“Tim was really late to start talking although he was always ‘switched on’ showing that he understood everything around. His lack of speech did get in the way of making himself understood and seemed to be impacting on his behaviour. He was nearly three before he first began talking with simple words which then developed over time. At home we could understand what Tim was saying, but staff and the children in his nursery were really struggling to understand him because of his stammer and unclear articulation. study this case
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