akin to scavengers, and not purposeful hunters of specific game. The clan roamed as herds of animals roamed, trying to find food and water, and followed these other

herds to the same watering holes and places where food was abundant.
Clan life at 35 ka Leader Hunter Group Gatherer Group Tool/weapon maker ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Probably the strongest or most dominant male or female, or perhaps a power couple Strongest and most clever members, in terms of hunting skills Everyone not involved in the hunter group, to include children Probably persons most closely associated with either main group Takes direction from leader Meets needs of hunters Invents new tools and devices An older member who has time to tell stories to the young, or tells stories at clan meetings Any person who has a story to tell about hunting or gathering Person responsible for burial rites A person to explain what has not been explained before Shaman/priest There is no such thing as uniform development for inhabitants of planet Earth. Development is relative, and is dependent on the experiences available in different regions. Therefore, persons near the sea will develop differently than persons in the desert or in the rain forest. However, there are some common developments, which are shown in the table above. Hunters selected their game, based on past experiences with meat quality and sufficiency for food for the clan. Gatherers selected nuts and berries that were good for food and that also provided the basis for dyes for painting faces or marking important places. Burial of dead individuals becomes a typical behavior among clans. And if burial was important, then the importance of each individual of the clan would be important. And if clan members became more significant, then the differing importance of specific roles would become more important. And this would mean that the role of leader was given to someone who had superior knowledge as well as superior ability. Clan life at 3,500 B.C.E. Leader Strongest, most clever male or female Subordinate leaders of groups Hunters Gatherers farmers ? Game killers/trappers ? Warriors ? Trackers ? Runners ? Berry selector ? Nut selector ? Child minder ? Dwelling preparer ? Plant and tend to crops ? Ensure water is available (irrigation) ? Store grain ? Provide gain to clan members ? Potters ? Weapon makers ? Cooking utensil makers ? Cooks ? Skinners ? Meat preservers ? Water gatherers ? An older member who has time to tell stories to the young, or tells stories at clan meetings ? Any person who has a story to tell about hunting or gathering ? Person responsible for burial rites ? A person to explain what has not been explained before ? Record history ? Record rule-making ? Keep writings safe ? Work directly with leader and priests Hunter Group Gatherer Group Farmers Artisans/special jobs Shaman/priest Scribes/keepers of the sacred writings and rules With written language, and more complex oral communication it was possible to further differentiate among roles and responsibilities in the clan. In fact, the clan has taken on a more complex and multi-level appearance, where collections of groups are present within a large communal system, which we would identify as towns and cities. Given the turbulent nature of life, where there was competition between cities for resources, and where roaming groups still threatened the survival of others, the warrior class became an important

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