Rather than just exploring sex (male and females), our research also examines how gender identity (masculinity and femininity in both males and females) may play a role in aspiring to top management positions, as well as attitudes towards women in management positions. Why is this study important? Some researchers suggest that a more balanced membership of males and females on Executive Boards and top management has a positive effect on an organisation ’s performance. However, as de Luis-Carnicer et al (2008) argue, the results of such studies have often led to inconclusive findings on whether this may be the case or not. They propose an ‘optimal’ level/balance, but this balance may still not be attained because of the ‘glass ceiling’ effect that females may experience. The glass ceiling relates to attitudes that both males and females have towards women in management positions. This research explo res some of those attitudes in relation to levels of aspiration, acceptance and personality (gender identity)
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