Final part of assingment
Research Project (Your Pilot Study) Final Paper
Abstract: Your proposal will begin with an abstract of your proposed study (one paragraph). This is basically a summary of your
proposal and it includes your research question.
Introduction (1-2 pages): After the abstract, be sure to begin with an introductory section that describes the research problem
and establishes its significance. This section answers the following kinds of questions: What exactly do you want to study? Why is it
worth studying? Does the proposed study have theoretical and/or practical significance? Does it contribute to a new understanding of a
phenomenon (e.g., does it address new or little-known material or does it treat familiar material in a new way or does it challenge an
existing understanding or extend existing knowledge)? Your Research Question/Hypothesis should be included in this section. Your
specific research question(s) or hypotheses should be stated in your introductory paragraph and in your abstract. Make sure you provide
a clear statement of your research hypothesis. This will also include identification of the independent and dependent variables.
A statement of your hypothesis. Make sure to state your independent and dependent variables.
For example, Prison-based college programs reduce recidivism.
Prison-based college programs is the IV and recidivism is the DV
Literature Review (3 – 4 pages): Identify three or more research studies (articles obtained from library resources) related to
your topic. Must be minimum of three pages (1500 words), approximately one page per article, plus a works cited (reference) page.
The research problem or objective needs to be situated within a context of other scholarship in the area(s). It addresses the following
kinds of questions:
What have others said about this area(s)?
What theories address it and what do these scholars say?
What research has been done (or not done) previously?
Are there consistent findings or do past studies disagree?
Are there flaws or gaps in the previous research that your study will seek to remedy?
The literature review presents a discussion of the most important research and theoretical work relating to the research
problem/objective. *Include only those articles that support the logic of the argument and/or the proposed research methods. For
instance, if you are interested in studying juvenile delinquency; the literature review would include studies on that topic, not
Discuss recent developments and potential avenues for new research. Note the purpose of the study and how study was conducted. Review
the discussion and conclusion sections of each scholarly article – the authors will identify ways to improve and/or expand research of
a particular issue. Using the information is a good way to come up with unique research ideas.
Finally, your independent variable and dependent variable should be the framework to use in developing the literature review.
**Remember that your hypothesis will seek to test the relationship between the two core variables, so knowing what the literature says
about those two variables will become critical.
The minimum of three sources are required. All 3 sources must be from an academic journal, not books, newspaper articles or magazine
articles. You may use these as additional sources beyond the required 3 journal articles. .
This section requires in-text citations in APA format. You must document your sources using the social sciences standard citation
method, APA. This method is actually simpler than MLA. For example, to cite your textbook after you talk about a theory, you need
only put the author’s last name and year of publication:
His lack of self-control suggests Latent Trait (Siegel, 2008). Then in your References (bibliography), you write:
Siegel, L. (2008). Criminology: the core. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
To find out the rules for APA style, please refer to the Berkeley Libguide at: http://berkeleycollege.libguides.com/content.php?
You can also look at the APA guide from the library at CUNY John Jay College of Criminal Justice.
You can also look at the OWL Purdue Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
Also, some databases, such as Proquest, will automatically put its listed sources in APA format for you. You can also use citation
assistants online or in Microsoft Word. Lastly, you can always go to the ASC for assistance in writing, paraphrasing, and referencing.
Methods (1 – 2 pages). This section describes you conducted your study. Regardless of the type of research you did, you need to
indicate how you carried it out in your study so others may judge its viability, its worth, etc. For example, for empirical research,
this section includes a description of the subjects (or participants), the measurements, the data-collection methods, and
analysis/analyses (1-2 Pages). This section should be detailed and provide enough information for another person to replicate your
study based entirely on the information included in this section. The methods section should include the following:
Restate Your Hypothesis:
Subjects for study: Describe the subjects (people or objects, e.g. texts) for your study, considering carefully the type and
number you need. Explain your method of selecting your sample.
Describe the population and how the sample will be drawn. Discuss the subject(s) in relation to your research question or
hypothesis, to availability, and to your research design. That is, you need to identify the subjects and make clear whether they will
be available and how you will reach them. This section typically answers the following questions: Who or what will you study in order
to collect data? Is it appropriate to select a sample from a larger pool? If so, how will you do that? How do these subjects relate to
your research question(s)? How you will identify members of the population and how you will select the sample. What sampling method are
you using? How many people will be included? What geographical area are you focusing upon?
Measurement: Describe the kinds of measures you used and explain why you have selected these (have they been used
previously?). A discussion of measurements generally considers the following questions: What are the key variables in your study? How
are they defined and measured Do your definitions and measurements draw on or differ from those of previous research in this area? Your
research question should guide you in your selection. Your conceptual and operational definitions of the variables in your hypothesis
will be clearly stated in this section.
Remember a conceptual definition provides an idea regarding the concept; a operational definition is specific to how the
concept will be measured. For example:
Conceptual: Success: one’s ability to succeed
Operation: Success is measured by no recidivism and/or reduced disciplinary infractions.
Conceptual: Inmate: A person who is incarcerated.
Operational: Inmate: A male or female between the ages of 18 and 65 incarcerated for a minimum of 5 years/maximum of 55 years
in a NYS correctional Facility.
.Describe what you actually did–the kind of research you conducted. Your data-collection methods obviously need to be
consistent with your research problem, your subjects and your measurements. This section typically considers whether you used surveys,
interviews, field study, etc. If you are conducting a survey or interview, please attach your questions as an appendix. If you are
conducting an field study, please attach your field notes as an appendix.
Results/Discussion (1 page)
Discuss the results of your research. What did you find? Be specific.
If You Conducted a Survey:
Analyze your results. What did you find? Write up everything you did, starting from the beginning and concluding with the results of
your study. Use the last couple of paragraphs to describe your experience with the survey research. Did you like it, hate it, find it
interesting, etc. and why? Did you face any difficulties? Submit the typed final Research Project Paper (pilot study) with the survey
attached. Be sure to bring copies of completed surveys to class to give to the professor.
If you conducted an Field Study:
Analyze your results – did you find anything interesting? For example, do security guards at Macys follow people of color around more
than white people? Look for trends. Write up everything you did, beginning with who you decided to observe, where you decided to
observe them, what you saw, and conclude with the results of your observations. Describe your experience with the field work. Did you
like it, hate it, find it interesting, etc. and why? Did you face any difficulties? Submit the typed Research Project Paper (pilot
study) with your field notes attached.
If you conducted Interviews:
What did you learn from your participants based on the questions asked? Submit the typed Research Project Paper (pilot study), which
will include a summary if the interviews (in question/answer format), any interesting findings, and how you felt about conducting an
interview. Please report on any difficulties that you faced.
7. Policy Implications (1 Page)
What is the meaning of your research? How can it impact public policy? For example, do we require more police presence or does it
mean that we require more sensitivity training for law enforcement.
8. Limitations (1 paragraph)
What are the weaknesses of your study design? How could this study be improved?
9. Future Research (1 paragraph)
What should other researchers focus on in this area? What is the next recommendation for future study? Why?
10. Works Cited Page (Reference Page)– make sure to provide a full reference list that adheres to APA format
11. Submit your final paper to the assignment link in Blackboard for your course.
In total, your paper will be 9 to 10 pages, not including the title page, reference page, or questionnaire, statement of study or
12. Appendix: Survey Questions, statement of study, and consent form
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