Critical examination and Social Affairs and social rights in Saudi Arabia

Critical examination and Social Affairs and social rights in Saudi Arabia 

Table of Contents
Introduction 1
Critical Analysis of Social affairs and social rights in Saudi Arabia 1
Social Affairs in Saudi Arabia 1
1. Education 1
2. Youth 2
3. Health 2
4. Disability ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..7
5. Public pension agency/pensioner……………………………………………………………………………………..8
Social Rights in Saudi Arabia 3
Conclusion 9
Bibliography 10

Critical examination and Social Affairs and social rights in Saudi Arabia 
Introduction
This paper is based on critical analysis of social rights and social affairs in Saudi Arabia. The lifetime worth of people living in any selected area depends on the provision of social care by the government. The Ministry of Social Affairs in Saudi Arabia runs some suites of collective eudemonia. Social care promotes self-worth reverence and every individual value. In regards to social care, the government is not only worried with the internal conditions of its people but also the external factors comprising of families, work conditions, financial status and security. 

Critical Analysis of Social affairs and social rights in Saudi Arabia
Social Affairs in Saudi Arabia
The Social Affairs Deputy Ministry undertakes all the factors of the provision of rehabilitation and social care to the needy individuals and families because of their special social and health conditions in order to support them to overcome the issues they face. As such, the Social Affairs Deputy Ministry of Saudi Arabia renders its services to paralyzed, social needs children, handicapped, juveniles, orphans, elders and people vulnerable to delinquency. It also provides to protect children, maintain ties of family and make sure the constructive woman role. 

1. Education
In 1932, since its inception, a major change has been seen in the education structure of Saudi Arabia. Under Article 30:
The State shall provide public education and shall commit itself to the eradication of illiteracy.
The present system of education comprises of secondary, primary and higher levels which are accessed in colleges, schools and universities. These educational institutes has a plan which has opened education to all citizens. The education scheme of the country has Islam as the major part of the course. Sciences and arts are also taught in various institutions of education. Nationwide, the educational system of Saudi Arabia includes 8 universities, large number of colleges, more than 24,000 schools and other training and educational institutions. The education system in Saudi Arabia is open to every person and provides free education, health and books with free services of education. Over 25% of the total budget is allocated by the government to education which comprise of training vocationally and spending Saudi Riyals of around 13.17 billion on primary research and education. All educations levels are free for the nationals of Saudi Arabia. There are foreign schools which provides the best education for children up to age of 14 years. Some international schools provide education up to 16 years. International schools in Saudi Arabia are required to compulsory teach Islam and missionary work by any religion other that the one forbidden in Islam. 

2. Youth
The strategy of National Youth shows a commitment and declaration to the directions, priorities and practical help which a country intends to provide to their young men and women development. It raises the understandings and profile, as a statement, of young individuals and acts as a framework, consensus and vision of the nation’s relating to their involvement in the national life and society.
Saudi Arabia is witnessing development in all developmental areas of social life
, Economic and cultural. Young people and it is an important factor in this development, understanding generation learner high frequency in enrollment rates, low literacy rates, and are therefore more powers affecting the labor market, and more segments of society in innovation and a desire to accommodate changes, and most the ability to interact and respond to the outputs of development and scientific and technical progress. However, these energy remain latent, what society did not succeed in finding help the environment to take advantage of them through appropriate policies and programs.
In the framework of a comprehensive look at the issues of youth development as a unit integrates all elements in order to ensure the development of the situation of youth. Eight Development Plan has seen a positive development in all aspects related to the development of young people, including education, health, social and cultural and sports.In this context, the Ninth Development Plan constitute a qualitative step on the path of interest .Youth issues from a global perspective involves all economic and social dimensions of development and cultural, taking into account all the different roles for young people, as well as their needs.
This chapter deals with the current status of the youth sector, explaining developments in through Eighth Development Plan, and reviewing the most prominent issues and challenges that should be addressed through the plan Ninth Development, and sheds light on the future vision, general objectives, policies and objectives Specific sector in the Ninth Development Plan. 
The contribution of young people in community development requires the public and private sectors to develop policies and implement programs to protect young people from the negative social, economic and environmental impacts.
Society in order to benefit from the capacity of young people to ensure the promotion of inserting the chances of youth participation in social and economic development processes like the creation and help provide opportunities for young people to listen to them and consider them as of the effective elements in the stages of the development environment.
Reflections ill youth development management so as not to include young people in the provision of productive opportunities to engage in civic life have a negative impact on young people’s behavior and lead to a lack of economic and social stability.
Strategic directions for youth reform operations are located in three directions 1. They expand opportunities where lies in the ability to expand access to education services and social welfare services and health care and improve the quality of those services and also give young people a voice to express the type of assistance that and they want the opportunity to participate in Tkadimha.2- strengthen the capacity of young people through the development of young people’s ability to choose from a good educational opportunities and social health. 3. The availability of alternative opportunities and be by providing oriented programs give young people hope and motivation to get out of bad luck and address the problems.
3. Health
Article 31:
The State shall be solicitous for promoting public health and shall provide medical care to every citizen.

In accordance with the government direction and the attention it contributes to the healthcare quality services and their delivery for all the individuals, the plans of development have provided specific attention to the sector health. This is the matter which has allowed the government to realize the major achievements during the prior years. The Health Ministry is the main agency of government, entrusted with preventive, rehabilitative and curative provision of healthcare to the citizens of the Kingdom. The ministry provides health care of primary services with the help of healthcare network centers throughout the country. It also provides services of specialist curative care with the help of specialist and general hospitals . 
Hajj policy under Ministry of Health’s
The center of the main axes of the Ministry of Health’s preparations for the Hajj on many of the plans, strategies and programs designed for it.
Where the Ministry of Health plan include the provision of preventive services and ambulatory therapeutic and advanced through collective action coordinated between all the chairmen and members of committees and sectors in the ministry and that problem out successful pilgrimage season free of infectious diseases
The plan depends on:
1. Preventive aspects by applying the slogan prevention is better than cure – hospitality to prevent epidemic diseases – early detection of cases of injuries infectious diseases – limit and contain the spread of epidemic diseases and the application of quarantine and health requirements on all comers.
2. Therapeutic areas: aims to provide quality treatment services of high quality at the lowest cost. Hajj provision of health services for free, including the private sector services.
3. Technical Support Services.
It aims to provide all the information and requirements for the operation of health facilities, for example: (Medical Supply, laboratories of all kinds, nutrition, statistics and information).
4. Operational Services: aims to facilitate the implementation of all business and operational procedures for all health facilities and those who made it include: transport, housing, communications, maintenance and cleaning, maintenance of medical and medical waste.
5. Ambulance services and emergency: aims to predict the risks in accordance with the forecast for global variables and internal events and activate the monitoring tools of risk factors, and the development of each type of detailed emergency plans.
6. Administrative respects: It aims to balance the budget and Ctaajiat own pilgrimage, coordination and integration between the health services provided by the various activities of the relevant authorities.
7. Development services: It aims to provide comprehensive quality services in the field of health services and raise the efficiency and the ability of workers to cope with the changes that occur during the pilgrimage season, as well as the development and improvement of health facilities.
8. Supervisory respects: It aims to maintain the excellence and leadership in the field of health services provided by the ministry to pilgrims and subdue all activities to oversee the process and evaluate the level of services provided through the services at health facilities.
9. Media respects: To highlight the role of health services provided by the state and the breakdown of activities raising awareness for pilgrims by all available means. In the framework of the ministry interesting aspects of the therapeutic in the pilgrimage season, the ministry is working hard to organize and prepare the hospitals in the holy sites to make them in a state of high alert ready to receive all regular and emergency cases have total power to the number of beds was (4285) beds and are subject to increase at a rate of 1045 As for the health centers ministry is working hard to run the largest number of health centers have taken into account the distribution of these health centers on different areas and places of pilgrimage gatherings and on the highways in a scientific way deliberate.
4. Disability
Individuals living disabilities are offered numerous collective services. These embrace employment, medical services, training opportunity and admission to different areas. Facilities have been availed for treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental and physical disability. These amenities include health centers, recuperation centers, and organizations. Presently, in Saudi Arabia, there are 18 therapeutic courses monitored by the Ministry of Health. These centers provide treatment and psychoanalysis facilities to individuals with cerebral and bodily infirmities. The Ministry of Social Affairs runs the laden reclamation centers. These points teach the less advantaged social, informative and job-related abilities for them to be independent in the society. The Ministry of Education manages particularized learning institutions. The sightless and tone-deaf also have special training institutes throughout the country. Non- profit organizations extend the avails to those people living with different impairments. Social staffs from these establishments also track collective modification with and in relation to the physically challenged.

5. Public pension agency/pensioner
The first law on social insurance in Saudi Arabia was implemented in 1973 while the existing was effected in 2001. Pension covers provided include old age pension, disability pension and survivor pension. The old age pension is provided to people of ages 60 years old and above in men and 55 years in females. Disability, the pension is for those without the capacity for working before age 60. For one to be covered, there are different conditions made in the Country.
Retirement two civilian and military , The interest of the State to provide a standard of living befitting retired state employees civilian and military, and provide social and economic security for them elements, after they perform their role in serving the country for many years, Saudi Arabia has issued a number of private retirement systems, designed to protect retirees and beneficiaries rights from their families, and give them the insurance umbrella check what they dreamed of living cream and stable level.
And regulating the rights of retired four main systems, namely:
Civil Service Retirement System:
It regulates the pension rights of civilians who worked for the agencies and institutions of government and they had spent a period of actual service on the ranking in the state budget.
Military Retirement System:
It regulates pension rights for military personnel who have served the armed forces and military institutions and state bodies, and they had a period of actual service.
Select the Civil Service Retirement System cases in which the civil servant pension, a pension worth: shops to retire on reaching the age of sixty years, provided that the length of service of not less than one year. Deceased and dismissed because of his inability to work categorically Whatever the length of service. Deceased or incapacitated at work and because of him. From his service it ended for any reason, and has a duration of service of 25 years and above. Ended his service because of the abolition of the post or dismissal from the Council of Ministers or by order and without reason Sam Todepie, provided that the length of service of not less than 15 years. Shops for retirement at his request and has the civil service at least net a duration of 20 full year subject to approval by the party that has the right to his appointment. Shops for retirement at his request and has calculated in accordance with the service retirement systems totaling 20 years and older, provided the consent of the party that has the right to his appointment.
Select the military retirement system cases where the military deserves a pension, namely:

Attainable specific referral to retirement age system to be assigned or returned to regular service.
From his service it ended with a friendly and active service military calculated not less than eighteen years of service or actual military and civilian Twenty years so that not less than the actual military service for eight years.
Shops for early retirement at his request, and the friendly service of not less than fifteen years, including eight military service subject to approval by the competent minister years.
From terminated his service for the benefit of the work in accordance with the regulations of military service and has a service of not less than fifteen years so that not less than the actual military service for eight years. Provided that the termination of employment due to absences or disciplinary or by virtue of his service was terminated by force of law for the crime of crimes.
Deceased (without cause of action) or terminated for lack of medical fitness work without reason, and have completed the trial period.
Who gets partial or total disability at work and because of him, or because of the weather or the environment diseases in point is the service, according to the conditions.
Deceased at work and because of him.
Who gets from the military becomes totally or in part because of the hostilities, or because families, or as a result of his injury during ordered by the service while the face of armed groups hostile, or during a fire during a raid places vandals or chase smugglers, or during live-fire training projects, or to storm inhibitions, broadcast or mine or removed, or while air and sea landings, or air and sea training, and in all similar cases, which was issued by a decision of the Council of Ministers.
Beneficiaries for the pensioner:
If the pensioner died decides his beneficiaries as far as pension pension due to him, distributing them evenly if their number was three or more, if the two are devoted to 75% the number of pension If the recipient is one allocates 50% of his pension.
And eligible for the pensioner were: spouse, mother, father, and son, and daughter, a son and a girl and a son who died in the life of the pensioner and brother and sister and grandparents. With the exception of the wife and son and daughter conditions shall be met for entitlement to the person to be supported by him, relying on his pension when he died.
Cut pension payable to the males of the children, and the children of the Son, and if the brothers have attained the age of twenty-one, and the exception, which continues to provide pension for those eligible in the following cases:

If the outstanding student at a junior high or high school or their equivalent recognized, it provided that the student is a regular in his study either compromised his pension until he reaches the age of twenty-sixth or graduation, whichever comes first.
If he was injured full health prevents him from earning a deficit and proved that a decision of the competent medical authority in order to be relieved deficit.

As of the date of the marriage contract stop pension wife and daughter and the girl Son and Sister if married and the mother if she married is not the father of the deceased and re-entitlement to its owner if divorced or widowed If the outstanding divorced or widowed married at the death of the pensioner shall be re-distribution of the pension, assuming due time of death.
Payment of the pension for the pensioner or eligible standing if appointed or assigned to established posts in the government or were ordained in which as well as upon the death of the pensioner, provided that the employee’s salary equivalent to a pension or plus Thus, if the lack of salary than he deserves from pension led to the variance.
If you fell or stopped share one eligible for whatever reason it does not lead to the rest of the beneficiaries, provided that at least a share of the rest of them in all cases (50%) of pension pensioner If Say this much thereby completing the rest as much as this percentage shall be redistributed among them a number their heads, if the share of outstanding returned suspended pension shall be re-distributed to beneficiaries who are as if it did not stop the share.

Social Rights in Saudi Arabia
Social rights refers to the moral, ethical and legal principles of liberties or entitlement for which all the human beings are entitled. The postulates of this concept confirms that every individual is endowed with some entitlement of basic rights because of being a human. The justification of these entitlements can be as natural rights, legal rights, social rights, moral norms, either at international or national level. However, this idea has been subjected to intense criticism and debate as there is no agreement to what should not and what should be regarded as a social right. 
The modern social rights concept was developed after the globalization of the world and which was awakened after the destruction caused by World War II and the crimes government of Hitler committed. This increased pressure on the requirement of an international stability and accountability system. This adoption of the social rights concept was done by United Nations Assembly and Universal Human Rights Declaration agency. The aim of this forum was to pave a path for universalism by solving the difference of culture between nations. It is an approach which most people argue that it has led to the requirements of some cultures being compromised. The universalism concept was boosted further by the International Criminal court adoption in 1998, with its main objective being the promotion of social values and enforcement asserted upon the United Nations member states. 
In Saudi Arabia, social rights are based on Sharia, which is an Islamic set of religious laws under the House of Saud rule, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s royal family. Saudi Arabian government has mostly been blamed for its religious minorities and political treatment, women. The social rights of the Kingdom are shown in the Basic system of government in article 26, charter of constitution which is in conformity to Sharia. The Social Rights National society was the initial independent organization of social rights in Saudi Arabia and was founded in 2004. Saudi Arabia’s Consultative Assembly, in 2008, also regarded as the Council of Shariah, ratified the Charter of Arabs on Social Rights. It is a charter which conform the principled included in the Social Rights Universal Declaration, the Cairo Declaration Act of Social Rights in Islam and the UN Charter. It lays the traditional human rights foundation like the right to protection, liberty, freedom to practice religious deeds and many others. Saudi Arabia is one the few world countries with corporal judicial punishment, the previous application of whipping, caning, strapping and birching as an official sentence by court’s order. The corporal judicial punishment in the Kingdom is carried out under the law of Sharia, and comprises of whipping for smaller crimes like sexual deviance, drunkenness and the amputations of hands and feet for serious crimes like theft and robbery. Capital punishment is also engaged in the country which comprises of beheading through public executions. This also is in conformity to the Islamic Law interpretation as punishment for murderers, rapists or armed thieves. 
The Saudi Arabian government has also been blamed for the violation of several social rights and lack of protection like religious freedom. In this Kingdom, the non-Muslim religious practices is prohibited aggressively. With the government declaration of the Sunna, Holy Quran as the constitution of the country, the law of Saudi Arabia doesn’t consider religious liberty. Being an Islamic state, it provides various treatments for Muslim and restricts the Non-Muslim burial on Saudi soil. During the month of Ramadhan, the fasting month, drinking, smoking or eating during daylight time in public is restricted even for Non-Muslims. Political liberty in this Kingdom is also curtailed, with the government of Saudi limits the liberty of speech and the press to prohibit any government criticism. Trade unions and political corporations are banned, demonstrations of public are outlawed and reception of Internet is inside the boards of the Saudi Arabian government and is censored actively. 
In the community of the country, roles of gender also come from Islamic law and Sharia as well as the culture of the tribe. All women, no matter what their age or social status is, are needed to have a guardian male. Women in Saudi Arabia do not possess voting rights and also they cannot be selected for any high political position. However, there is a sufficient proof that women in Saudi Arabia do not want a radical transformation. Reform advocates in this country denounce the criticism of Western critics regarding the Kingdom for failing to act on the uniqueness of Islam of the Saudi community. Advocates argue that women in the Kingdom do not have social rights, thought these rights relies on their life obligations. 
Most of the Saudis do not perceive Islam as the main obstruction to the social rights of women and dismisses the Islamic views as being patriarchal as the typecast of the West. For the provocation of that Islam, it needs robust women, Saudis mostly invoke the Prophet’s wife Khadijah, as a strong business women who employed the Prophet Muhammad and is the one who started the proposal of marriage. One of the wives of Prophet Muhammad i.e. Hazrat Aisha, at the Battle of Camel, commanded an entire army. This shows that women were given the opportunity to do business and also participate in military tactics. In Saudi Arab, women, in many aspects of their lives face discrimination like common, civil and religious systems. Despite the fact that they accounts for 70% of those registered in public institutions, because of social reasons. But pertaining to the workforce, only 5% of them are in the national working force. The government efforts to help expand the opportunities of employment to the women in this country were faced with strong resistance form the labor ministry, religious police as well as the male class. In major parts of the Kingdom, it is believed that woman’s role is to care for her family and husband only. There is a huge segregation in the houses of this country, with some rooms having alienated entrances for women and men. 
Until 1990, women driving a car has also been banned. But there are instances where 47 women drove cars through the capital of Saudi i.e. Riyadh. Although it was illegal for women to drive outside the cities but in rural areas, women to drive cars. However, they are allowed to fly aircraft and are also needed to be chauffeured to the airport. The reason of restricting driving to women is that the people of Saudi believes that this will lead to an erosion of the traditional principles and the western openness style. In 2008, before a Royal Decree, women were not allowed to enter furnished hotels or apartments without chaperon or mahram. With the law, the only requirements were the ID cards and the hotel needs to inform the police station of their staying durations as well as the reservation of the room. 
The present government under the rule of King is regarded as reformist. This government appointed the first cabinet member to be a female and started the first co-educational university in the nation and is also regarded for passing legislations against the local violence. However, this reform is very slow as per critics and is more substance than being symbolic. Saudi society is seen by the conservative as the Islamic center and hence the actions for values that are uniquely conservative. They try to preserve the classic cultural roles of gender, while on the other side; radical activists contrast the situation of the women of Saudi Arab to that of slavery. In 2006, a poll of government was conducted which reveals that over 80% of the women in this Kingdom do not think that they should drive or work with men. A poll subsequent to that revealed that majority of the women are not of the view that they should be allowed to hold an office of politics. Women in Saudi are in full support of their classical roles of gender and are of the view that reforms needs to be opposed to values of Islam. They argue that they already have high level of freedom and the changes would bring about unwanted influence of western culture. 
All women in Saudi are needed to have a guardian male, who can either be their husband, brother or a father. This guardian has duties and rights to his woman in many factors of civic life. Women in this Kingdom fist needs the permission of the guardian in matters like divorce, education, marriage, travel, employment as well bank account opening. The requirements of the guardian are not law written but are applicable according to the customs of the society and as per the requirements of the institutions like banks and hospitals. Transactions officially initiated by women re mostly abandoned and officers mostly demand the male guardian presence in order for the authorization to be approved. In a recent interview, the women in Saudi Arab protected male guardians as providing them protection and love. Economic rights of women in this Kingdom are also infringed severely. In order for a women to sell or buy a property piece, she is required to bring two witnesses as men to determine her identity. Moreover, she is needed to bring 4 other witnesses who needs to be male to testify that the initial two are valid witnesses and that they know her actually. This makes it difficult for women to have their legal or social rights. Therefore, they mostly end up finding other alternatives like paying bribes. Since birth, the girls in Saudi Arabia are taught that their main role in the society is to take proper care of the family, their husband, children and the household. As per Shariah, women are allowed to work as long she doesn’t neglect her basic duties of house making. Offices of the government strictly advices for their minimal interaction between non-mahram men and women. They are allow to work as long as their guardian male approves. The work of a woman must be deemed appropriate for her mentality and physique and for this reason, they cannot be selected for judge positions or high public office. 

Conclusion
To sum up, just like any other region, states should not be forced into establishing domestic or universal structures which bypass their control levels or social rights. As in the instance of Saudi Arabia, majority of the societal groups whose rights have been violated do not have law access as well as to equality. This shows that how both theories establishes a double standard, with men accepting readily the norms of west whereas women are tolerates with the brunt of authenticity of the culture. However, with these actual strategies, sensitivities of the culture like in Saudi Arabia cannot be restored with universal objectives. 

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