Critical Thinking in Philosophy

Critical Thinking in Philosophy State three differences between deductive and inductive arguments. Consider the argument in the following passage. How can I go to the party? If I’m to get a good mark in this course I need to finish the project and to complete the project I will need to work on it all weekend. Don’t call me, don’t come round. Just let me get on with my work. (b) Re-write the argument in standard form clearly identifying the premises and conclusion. 2 (c) What is meant by a “hidden” premise? 1 1 AE KU AE 3 KU (d) State one hidden premise associated with the above argument. (e) Read the following argument. If you have a good diet you will grow up to be fit and strong. Since you are clearly fit and strong you must have had a good diet. (i) Name the fallacy in the above argument. (ii) Explain what is wrong with this kind of argument. 1 1 AE KU (f) Which of the following contains or implies a false dilemma? Give a reason for your answer. 1. William was no longer sure he wanted to break in to the house. “Come on,” said Sarah, who by now had taken charge, “What are you, a man or a mouse?” 2. “Neither a borrower nor a lender be.” (William Shakespeare, “Hamlet”, Act 1 scene 3.) 3. The rebel soldiers surrounded the hut where the two friends were hiding. There was now no escape. They heard the captain call out, “You have two choices—surrender or die.” 4. “I don’t know what to do”, the woman said. She was lying, she knew full well what she had to do. 5. Let’s see what’s in the picnic basket. Well, you can have an apple or an 1 2 orange. KU AE [X268/12/01] Page two Marks Code Question 1 (continued) (g) “All cats like fish so Tiddles likes fish.” Identify four features of this argument using what you have learned from 4 studying critical thinking. (h) Make up a sentence that is not a statement. (i) What is a sound argument? 1 1 AE KU KU Look at the following diagram (j) Make up a sound argument about some aspect of the above diagram. 2 (20) KU [Turn over [X268/12/01] Page three Marks Code Section 2 – Metaphysics Either Question 2 (You should only answer this question if you have studied the debate “Is there a rational basis for belief in God?” If not, go to Question 3.) And assuredly that, than which nothing greater can be conceived, cannot exist in the understanding alone. St. Anselm, Proslogium Does Anselm’s ontological argument successfully prove the existence of God? 10 Give reasons for your answer. 10 (20) Or Question 3 (You should only answer this question if you have studied the debate “Do we have free will?”) To what extent is the Libertarian argument convincing? 10 10 (20) KU AE KU AE [X268/12/01] Page four Marks Code Section 3 – Epistemology Question 4 (You should answer all parts of this question and either Question 5 or Question 6.) The Tripartite Theory of Knowledge is the theory that knowledge consists of justified true beliefs and that these criteria are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge. (a) Why are these criteria deemed to be “individually necessary” and “jointly 2 sufficient”? (b) How does scepticism challenge the possibility of satisfying the justification 2 criterion? 2 (c) How do Gettier problems challenge the tripartite theory of knowledge? 2 Give an example to support your answer. 2 (10) KU KU AE KU AE [Turn over [X268/12/01] Page five Marks Code Either Question 5 (You should only answer this question if you have studied Descartes’ Rationalism in the Epistemology Unit. If not, go to Question 6.) At the beginning of Meditation 1 Descartes tells us what strategy he is going to use. (a) Describe the strategy that Descartes says he intends to use. 4 KU KU AE (b) Describe how Descartes implements this strategy in the rest of Meditation 1. 10 (c) Evaluate the arguments Descartes uses to arrive at the Cogito. 16 (30) Or Question 6 (You should only answer this question if you have studied Hume’s Empiricism in the Epistemology Unit.) Even after we have experience of the operations of cause and effect, the conclusions we draw from that experience are not based on reasoning or on any process of the understanding. I shall try to explain and defend this answer. Hume Enquiries, Section IV : II (a) What conclusions does Hume think we normally draw from the “experience of the operations of cause and effect”? Give examples to support your answer. 6 (b) Why does Hume believe that these conclusions are “not based on reasoning 8 or on any process of the understanding”? (c) Evaluate to what extent Hume’s position on the reason of animals supports 16 the above claim. (30) KU KU AE [X268/12/01]2
Page six Marks Code Section 4 – Moral Philosophy You should answer both questions – Question 7 and Question 8. Question 7 Describe Bentham’s utilitarianism and explain why other utilitarian philosophers 15 have modified this position. 15 (30) KU AE Question 8 (a) What is meant by “contradiction in conception”? support your answer. Give an example to 2 KU KU AE (b) What is meant by “contradiction in the will”? Give an example to support 2 your answer. (c) Explain two criticisms of Kantian ethics. 6 (10)

 

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