Question George Creel How We Advertised America 1920 In 1917 President Wilson appointed George Creel a progressive midwestern journalist to head the Committee on Public Information. His task was to mold American public opinion in support of the war effort. Creel presided over a highly centralized and effective government propaganda effort that was unique in American history to that point. After the Armistice Creel wrote a widely read book that detailed and justified the work of the CPI. SOURCE: George Creel How We Advertised America (Macmillan 1920) pp. 3?9. How We Advertised America THE ?SECOND LINES? Back of the firing-line back of armies and navies back of the great supply-depots another struggle waged with the same intensity and with almost equal significance attaching to its victories and defeats. It was the fight for the minds of men for the ?conquest of their convictions? and the battle-line ran through every home in every country. It was in this recognition of Public Opinion as a major force that the Great War differed most essentially from all previous conflicts. The trial of strength was not only between massed bodies of armed men but between opposed ideals and moral verdicts took on all the value of military decisions. Other wars went no deeper than the physical aspects but German Kultur raised issues that had to be fought out in the hearts and minds of people as well as on the actual firing-line. The approval of the world meant the steady flow of inspiration into the trenches; it meant the strengthened resolve and the renewed determination of the civilian population that is a nation?s second line. The condemnation of the world meant the destruction of morale and the surrender of that conviction of justice which is the very heart of courage.The Committee on Public Information was called into existence to make this fight for the ?verdict of mankind? the voice created to plead the justice of America?s cause before the jury of Public Opinion. The fantastic legend that associated gags and muzzles with its work may be likened only to those trees which are evolved out of the air by Hindu magicians and which rise grow and flourish in gay disregard of such usual necessities as roots sap and sustenance. In no degree was the Committee an agency of censorship a machinery of concealment or repression. Its emphasis throughout was on the open and the positive. At no point did it seek or exercise authorities under those war laws that limited the freedom of speech and press. In all things from fast to last without halt or change it was a plain publicity proposition a vast enterprise in salesmanship the world?s greatest adventure in advertising.Under the pressure of tremendous necessities an organization grew that not only reached deep into every American community but that carried to every corner of the civilized globe the full message of America?s idealism unselfishness and indomitable purpose. We fought prejudice indifference and disaffection at home and we fought ignorance and falsehood abroad. We strove for the maintenance of our own morale and the Allied morale by every process of stimulation; every possible expedient was employed to break through the barrage of lies that kept the people of the Central Powers in darkness and delusion; we sought the friendship and support of the neutral nations by continuous presentation of facts. We did not call it propaganda for that word in German hands had come to be associated with deceit and corruption. Our effort was educational and informative throughout for we had such confidence in our case as to feel that no other argument was needed than the simple straightforward presentation of facts.There was no part of the great war machinery that we did not touch no medium of appeal that we did not employ. The printed word the spoken word the motion picture the telegraph the cable the wireless the poster the sign-board?all these were used in our campaign to make our own people and all other peoples understand the causes that compelled America to take arms. All that was fine and ardent in the civilian population came at our call until more than one hundred and fifty thousand men and women were devoting highly specialized abilities to the work of the Committee as faithful and devoted in their service as though they wore the khaki.While America?s summons was answered without question by the citizenship as a whole it is to be remembered that during the three and a half years of our neutrality the land had been torn by a thousand divisive prejudices stunned by the voices of anger and confusion and muddled by the pull and haul of opposed interests. These were conditions that could not be permitted to endure. What we had to have was no mere surface unity but a passionate belief in the justice of America?s cause that should weld the people of the United States into one white-hot mass instinct with fraternity devotion courage and deathless determination. The war-will the will-to-win of a democracy depends upon the degree to which each one of all the people of that democracy can concentrate and consecrate body and soul and spirit in the supreme effort of service and sacrifice. What had to be driven home was that all business was the nation?s business and every task a common task for a single purpose.Starting with the initial conviction that the war was not the war of an administration but the war of one hundred million people and believing that public support was a matter of public understanding we opened up the activities of government to the inspection of the citizenship. A voluntary censorship agreement safeguarded information of obvious value to the enemy but in all else the rights of the press were recognized and furthered. Trained men at the center of effort in every one of the war-making branches of government reported on progress and achievement and in no other belligerent nation was there such absolute frankness with respect to every detail of the national war endeavor.As swiftly as might be there were put into pamphlet form America?s reasons for entering the war the meaning of America the nature of our free institutions our war aims likewise analyses of the Prussian system the purposes of the imperial German government and full exposure of the enemy?s misrepresentations aggression and barbarities. Written by the country?s foremost publicists scholars and historians and distinguished for their conciseness accuracy and simplicity these pamphlets blew as a great wind against the clouds of confusion and misrepresentation. Money could not have purchased the volunteer aid that was given freely the various universities lending their best men and the National Board of Historical Service placing its three thousand members at the complete disposal of the Committee. Some thirty-odd booklets covering every phase of America?s ideals purposes and aims were printed in many languages other than English. Seventy-five millions reached the people of America and other millions went to every comer of the world Carrying our defense and our attack.The importance of the spoken word was not underestimated. A speaking division toured great groups like the Blue Devils Pershing?s Veterans and the Belgians arranged mass-meetings in the communities conducted forty-five war conferences from coast to coast coordinated the entire speaking activities of the nation and assured consideration to the crossroads hamlet as well as to the city.The Four Minute Men an organization that will live in history by reason of its originality and effectiveness commanded the volunteer services of 75000 speakers operating in 5200 communities and making a total of 755190 speeches every one having the carry of shrapnel.With the aid of a volunteer staff of several hundred translators the Committee kept in direct touch with the foreign-language press supplying selected articles designed to combat ignorance and disaffection. It organized and directed twenty-three societies and leagues designed to appeal to certain classes and particular foreign-language groups each body carrying a specific message of unity and enthusiasm to its section of America?s adopted peoples.It planned war exhibits for the state fairs of the United States also a great series of interallied war expositions that brought home to our millions the exact nature of the struggle that was being waged in France. In Chicago alone two million people attended in two weeks and in nineteen cities the receipts aggregated $1432261.36.The Committee mobilized the advertising forces of the country?press periodical car and outdoor?for the patriotic campaign that gave millions of dollars? worth of space to the national service.It assembled the artists of America on a volunteer basis for the production of posters window-cards and similar material of pictorial publicity for the use of various government departments and patriotic societies. A total of 1438 drawings was used.It issued an official daily newspaper serving every department of government with a circulation of one hundred thousand copies a day. For official use only its value was such that private citizens ignored the supposedly prohibitive subscription price subscribing to the amount of $77622.58.It organized a bureau of information for all persons who sought direction in volunteer war-work in acquiring knowledge of any administrative activities or in approaching business dealings with the government. In the ten months of its existence it gave answers to eight-six thousand requests for specific information.It gathered together the leading novelists essayists and publicists of the land and these men and women without payment worked faithfully in the production of brilliant comprehensive articles that went to the press as syndicate features.One division paid particular attention to the rural press and the plate-matter service. Others looked after the specialized needs of the labor press the religious press and the periodical press. The Division of Women?s War Work prepared and issued the information of peculiar interest to the women of the United States also aiding in the task of organizing and directing.Through the medium of the motion picture America?s war progress as well as the meanings and purposes of democracy were carried to every community in the United States and to every corner of the world. ?Pershing?s Crusaders? ?America?s Answer? and ?Under Four Flags? were types of feature films by which we drove home America?s resources and determinations while other pictures showing our social and industrial life made our free institutions vivid to foreign peoples. From the domestic showings alone under a fair plan of distribution the sum of $878215 was gained which went to support the cost of the campaigns in foreign countries where the exhibitions were necessarily free.Another division prepared and distributed still photographs and stereopticon slides to the press and public. Over two hundred thousand of the latter were issued at cost. This division also conceived the idea of the ?permit system? that opened up our military and naval activities to civilian camera men and operated it successfully. It handled also the voluntary censorship of slide and motion pictures in order that there might be no disclosure of information valuable to the enemy. The number of pictures reviewed averaged seven hundred a day. 1. According to Creel how did this war differ from all previous conflicts? 2. Why and how does Creel distinguish the work of the CPI from ?propaganda?? 3. Why were new mass media so crucial to the Committee on Public Information?
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