Question Mini Case Study on International Crisis (week 6) In 1990 Iraq invaded Kuwait claiming that Kuwait was stealing oil from an oil field that straddled the Iraq-Kuwait border and that the territory of Kuwait had historically been a province of Iraq. Iraq quickly overran Kuwait which was much smaller and militarily weaker than Iraq. Once Iraq had taken over Kuwait it destroyed property records and other important documents as if to eradicate the legal vestiges of the Kuwaiti government. Iraq also postured in a way that was widely viewed as threatening Saudi Arabia home to arguably the most important oil fields in the world. In 1991 the United Nations Security Council authorized military action to evict Iraq and a multinational force with 34 members soon evicted Iraq from Kuwait and restored the Kuwaiti government. The League of Arab States also approved of military action to reverse the invasion of Kuwait; both Iraq and Kuwait were (and still are) members of the league and a number of Arab states participated in the military action. Under the terms of the 1991 ceasefire after the restoration of the Kuwaiti government Iraq pledged to dismantle its weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs. At the time it was widely believed that Iraq was developing nuclear weapons. Further it was documented by the U.N. that Iraq had actually used chemical WMDs against Iranian troops during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s and against a minority population in Iraq in 1988. In response to Iraq’s noncompliance with the commitments it made in the 1991 ceasefire the U.N. authorized economic sanctions against it. Despite the sanctions some claim that Iraq continued to defy the U.N. inspectors who were responsible for checking on Iraq’s progress in dismantling its WMD programs and relations between Iraq and the United States reached a critical level. In part Iraq’s reluctance to work closely with U.N. inspectors may have been a reaction to the U.S.’s response to the September 11 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and the Pentagon. Iraq had nothing to do with the attacks but the attacks heightened the concerns of U.S. leaders about the dangers of nuclear weaponry in the hands of adversaries. Some members of the Bush Administration were convinced that Iraq was developing WMDs and the United States raised its concerns at the U.N. but did not request Security Council authorization for military action against Iraq to enforce the WMD terms of the 1991 ceasefire. U.N. authorization may not have been requested because the United States knew that the Security Council would not authorize the action; five members of the Security Council have veto power which is to say any one of them could have prevented the authorization from being passed. The United States claimed that a U.N. authorization was not necessary because the 1991 ceasefire agreement provided the necessary authority; this view was not widely shared. In 2003 the United States and several allies (the United Kingdom Australia and Poland) invaded Iraq to enforce the WMD provisions of the ceasefire?but even after defeating Iraqi military forces no WMDs were found. Setting aside your personal views of the Iraq War and its aftermath of violence compare and contrast the 1991 and 2003 military actions with respect to the roles of the United States the United Nations other international bodies and other states. Like your previous essay this one should have 500 to 750 words be word processed double-spaced edited spell-chekced and fully cited. Good essays will have an introduction a thesis statement topic sentences for each paragraph supporting evidence and a conclusion.
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