Notes: Although there is a minimum word count of 2,000 words for each exam, you will find that it is likely going to require far more
words to fully answer the questions. You must list all of your sources in a Literature Cited section at the end of the exam. Do not include intext
citations. You may not copy or quote from any source. All information must be re-written in your own words. Exams must be
submitted by the due date. There are no extensions for the Final Examination. The Final Examination must be submitted by the
Answer all four questions in sequence and number your answers. Do not include the questions on your exams.
Question 1: Photosynthesis (25 points)
Describe the structure of the chloroplast and the mechanisms of photosynthesis. Include in your answer:
a. the structure and function of the different compartments and membranes of the chloroplast
b. the role of light in the photosynthetic process (photolysis and photophosphorylation)
c. the synthesis of sugars from carbon dioxide and the products of photophosphorylation (photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle)
d. a comparison of C-3 and C-4 plants and adaptations of C-4 plants for tropical and desert habitats
Question 2: Nerve and Muscle (25 Points)
Describe the structure and function of neurons and muscle cells. Include in your answer:
a. the development of the "resting potential" and the events occurring during an "action potential",
b. the roles of the neurotransmitters released into the neuromuscular junction, the functions of ion channels in muscle cell membranes,
the function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and the effects of sodium, potassium and calcium ions,
c. the structural nature of the sarcomere and actin and myosin and their interactions during muscle contraction,
d. the specialized muscles of the tentacles of cuttlefish and squid and how they influence strength and speed of contraction.
Question 3: Flying Dinosaurs (25 Points)
Describe the adaptations for flight in birds and the evidence that endothermic homeothermy ("warm-bloodedness") evolved in the dinosaur
ancestors of birds. Include in your answer
a. a modern explanation of flight mechanics as presented in the text: how do birds achieve propulsion and lift?
b. descriptions of adaptations for flight that (1) reduce weight, (2) contribute to body balance and (3) increase power.
c. a description of the structure of each feature preserved as physical fossil evidence that is presumed to indicate "warm-bloodedness"
in dinosaurs and describe why paleontologists associate that structure and its function with "warm-bloodedness"
Question 4: Structural Materials and Terrestrial Locomotion (25 points)
Describe the fundamental characteristics of structural materials produced by animals and how these materials meet their functional
requirements for tetrapod locomotion on land. Include in your answer:
a. the definitions of (1) stress, (2) strain, (3) stiffness, (4) plastic, (5) elastic and (6) strength while comparing spider silk protein and
synthetically produced nylon and rayon,
b. physical principles of terrestrial locomotion,
c. the advantages conferred by various adaptations of legs and arrangements of tendon and muscle, and
d. the differences in locomotory patterns of the cat, horse, giraffe, and human and how architecture contributes to the “spring in your
Provide your answer to each general question that also incorporates all of the sub-points. Attempt to write each answer in a manner that
flows and shows the development of ideas and their relationships to one another paragraph by paragraph. The sub-points of the question
may be included in your answer in any order. Head each answer with the question number only as: Question 1, Question 2, Question 3 and
Question 4. Do not include the questions in your exam.
The first lines of your exam must have the following structure, substituting your name, Knumber, email address, and login:
Immediately following the last question, two lines below, list all sources used in writing your essay to answer the question. Do not use intext
citations and do not use footnotes. Simply list your sources in this “Literature Cited” section.
You must have a Literature Cited section with at least five references which you have used in preparing your answers: the course website,
the textbook, and at least three additional sources. If you do not include a Literature Cited section, you will lose 10 points (2 points for each
missing source). Be sure to include the Literature Cited section with your submission to Turnitin; you will not be able to re-submit if you
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