Topic: Pan Islamic Movements
Pan Islamism is the trend that the Muslims have taken to establish unity. It started in the nineteenth century and continued through to the twentieth century where the Islamic societies used their cultures to enhance political ends. The Muslims believe in their religious traditions and they aim at developing societies that live in accordance to the Muslim ideologies.
This paper will explain the Pan-Islamic movement in Europe and determine the forms of mobilization that the Islam has developed in Europe to attain recognition.
Questions of study
1. What were the policies of the European Empires towards the Muslims?
2. In what ways have the European Empire engaged with the Muslims and their religious faith?
3. What are the forms of Muslim mobilization, articulation and consciousness in Europe?
i. Policies of the European Empires towards the Muslims. The Muslims had been independent of the prejudices in the Western world, and this made it possible for other policies to be developed in other parts of the world. The Japanese for instance had focused on imposing superior ruling methods on the Muslim societies
ii. Recognition. The Muslims wanted to be recognized and get the same opportunities that the Europeans got. This included freedom to religion and colonial citizenship
iii. Political mobilization of the Muslims. The Western culture sees the political mobilization of the Muslims as aggressive. Nevertheless, the Muslims in Europe are developing strategies that necessitate the need for equality in the European world by becoming non aggressive and implementing modern ways of searching for freedom. Compared to the model used in Middle East to establish the position of the Muslims, those in Europe and France do not get to associate with their Islamic faith to relate to their everyday life and experiences. They have eliminated the religious influences that are related to their involvement in the political arena .
iv. Muslim mobilization for the Muslim schools. The Muslims find it important to establish Muslim schools in Britain where Muslim educators will take control and offer Muslim education to the students Bibliography
Fregosi, F. “Muslim Collective Mobilisation in Contemporary Europe: New Issues and New Types of Involvement.” Muslim Political Participation in Europe (2013): 125-139.
Germain, Eric. “Southern hemisphere diasporic communities in the building of an international Muslim public opinion at the turn of the twentieth century.” Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 27, no. 1 (2007): 126-138
Meer, Nasar. “Identity articulations, mobilization, and autonomy in the movement for Muslim schools in Britain.” Race ethnicity and education 12, no. 3 (2009): 379-399.
Motadel, D. ed., Islam and the European Empires, Oxford: OUP, 2014 INSTRUCTION
-You can come up with the question yourself after reading the above instruction. Please send me an outline on what you are going to write by Friday so I can double check with the professor. I will give you extended time if you need. -You don’t need to generalize the topic but pick a more interesting part of pan-Islamic movement and its influence in Europe or either it was made in Europe. But it has to be related to Europe or the European colony. -Pan-Islamism is definitely a topic of interest in this module. This from at least three angles: firstly, in as much as pan-Islamism and pan-Islamist movements, real or phantasms, were a central concern of imperial states and political and policy circles, metropolitan and colonial as well as, though of course differently, of the Ottomans; second, in that forms of pan-Islamic identification and mobilization were part of the formation of Muslim consciousness in the making of Muslims in Europe; third in conceptualizations of transnational Muslim articulations, whether explicitly and ideologically ‘pan-Islamist’ or not, not least of which were diasporas, the circulation of publications, the impact of events, and the Hajj.
The focus of your question should be the intersection of forms of Muslim forms of mobilization, consciousness and articulation in the Europe and European fears, anxieties and concerns. READING as a starting point:
Eric Germain (‘Southern hemisophere diasporic communities’), and David Motadel’s book of which almost every chapter contains relevant material. I would additionally recommend the books by Geaves and Gilham focusing on Quilliam and British converts respectively. Further Reading:
Eric Germain, ‘Southern Hemisphere Diasporic Communities in the building of an International Muslim Public Opinion at the turn of the Twentieth Century’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 27:1 (2007), pp.120-138
David Motadel ed., Islam and the European Empires, Oxford: OUP, 2014
Ron Geaves, Islam in Victorian Britian: The Life and Times of Abdullah Quilliam, Markfield: Kube Publishing, 2010
Jamie Gilham, Loyal Enemies: British Converts to Islam, 1850-1950, London: Hurst, 2014
Edmund Burke, ‘Pan-Islam and Moroccan Resistance to French Colonial Penetration, 1900-1912’, Journal of African History 13:1 (1972), 97-118
Humayun Ansari, ‘Making Transnational Connections: Muslim Networks in Early Twentieth-Century Britain’, in Nathalie Clayer and Eric Germain eds., Islam in Inter-War Europe, London: Hurst, 2008, pp.31-63
K.H. Ansari, ‘Pan-Islam and the Making of Early Indian Muslim Socialists’, Modern Asian Studies 20:3 (1986), 509-537
Jacob M. Landau, The Politics of Pan-Islam: Ideology and Organization, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994
Cemil Aydin, The Politics of Anti-Westernism in Asia: Visions of World Order in Pan-Islamic and Pan-Asian Thought, NY: Columbia UP, 2007
Michael Christopher Low, Empire and the Hajj: Pilgrims, Plagues and Pan-Islam Under British Surveillance, 1865-1926, International Journal of Middle East Studies 40:2 (2008), pp.269-90
Topic: Pan Islamic Movements
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