Question QUESTION 1 Empirical research is first a mathematical rather than a logical operation. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 2 Which of the following would represent a distribution of those arrested on a holiday weekend? a. the exact number of persons arrested for violation of specific statute numbers b. a partial list of persons arrested with the corresponding statute number they allegedly violated c. the number of persons arrested for violent crimes the number of persons arrested for property crimes but not the number of persons arrested for public order crimes d. a list of people arrested for DUI only 0 points QUESTION 3 Univariate analysis and subgroup comparisons focus on describing variables while bivariate analysis focuses upon people. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 4 Because extremes in a distribution (a very large or very small number) can impact the mean it is usually important to examine measures of dispersion about the mean. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 5 Of the three measures of central tendency which one takes into account extreme values? mode median Mean mode and median 0 points QUESTION 6 The range is a measure of central tendency. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 7 With respect to standard deviation which of the following statements is correct? it is the distance separating the highest and lowest value it is the square of the variance it can be a positive or negative number comparing standard deviations for different groups of cases indicates relative amounts of dispersion within each group 0 points QUESTION 8 When reporting marginals for univariate analysis the presentation must be in raw numbers and cannot be reported in percentages. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 9 Chi Square is based on the ___________________. null hypothesis mean range descriptive statistics 0 points QUESTION 10 Which of the following do not represent measures of dispersion? ranges Means standard deviations variance 0 points QUESTION 11 In calculating the rate of female rapes within New York City which of the following would appear to be the best data for the denominator? females living in New York City all people living in New York City all males living in New York City since nearly all rapes are committed by males females over the age of 21 living in New York City 0 points QUESTION 12 In a distribution of sentence lengths in months like the following: 6 12 10 18 24 360; which statistic would a researcher not want to report? standard deviation Mean range raw numbers QUESTION 13 Which statement is true regarding rates? Rates are fundamental inferential statistics in criminal justice research. Rates are used to standardize some measure for comparative purposes. In criminal justice crime rates per 1000000 population is a common convention in reporting. These are the only governmental statistics that are calculated to discuss crime 0 points QUESTION 14 When calculating the mean the researcher should use data measured at which level? nominal ordinal Interval both interval and ordinal 0 points QUESTION 15 When using inferential statistics all of the following assumptions are accurate except _____. the sample must be drawn from the population about which inferences are being made the inferential statistics assume simple random sampling as long as the sample is drawn from a population that resembles the one about which inferences are to be made the resulting statistic has value inferential statistics are addressed to sampling error only they do not consider non-sampling errors 0 points QUESTION 16 Summary averages or measures of central tendency include the mode mean and range. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 17 Dr. Jones wanted to display the findings of the sentences given in his local courthouse on one summer day. If the sentences displayed in months were 10 18 24 36 18 70 30 then which of the following measures of central tendency is accurate? the mean is 24 the median is 24 the mode is 24 the median is 26 0 points QUESTION 18 Which of the following represents a discrete variable? Gender annual salary age hours worked 0 points QUESTION 19 Which of the following is not a guideline for the presentation of tabular data? there is no need to display information about missing data include only that information which pertains to the independent and dependent variables when using percentages in a table the base on which the percentages are computed should be indicated a heading or title for the table should be given that succinctly describes what is contained in the table the attributes of each variable should be clearly indicated 0 points QUESTION 20 Which of the following is inaccurate concerning the construction of explanatory bivariate tables? the cases are divided into groups according to attributes of the independent variable each of the subgroups is then described in terms of attributes of the dependent variable the table is read by comparing the independent variable subgroups with one another in terms of a given attribute of the dependent variable the cases are divided into groups according to attributes of the levels of measurement. 0 points QUESTION 21 Measures of dispersion are not appropriate for which types of variables? Interval ratio Ordinal discrete QUESTION 22 Bivariate analyses typically have an explanatory purpose. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 23 Which of the following is accurate concerning empirical research? empirical research is a mathematical rather than a logical operation mathematics is a very difficult but efficient language criminal justice is the applied branch of mathematics empirical research is a logical rather than a mathematical operation 0 points QUESTION 24 Which of the following represent a continuous variable? gender race Age religious affiliation 0 points QUESTION 25 Tests of statistical significance should not be calculated on relationships observed in data collected from whole populations. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 26 The use of rates in the reporting of criminal justice data allow the researcher to _____. standardize by sample size make more meaningful comparisons explain methodology select random sample 0 points QUESTION 27 When reading a table for bivariate analysis that displays percentages of some attributes what is the rule of thumb for reading the table? if it adds up to 100% the statistics are accurate if the table is percentaged down read across and if the table is percentaged across read down if the table is percentaged down read down and if the table is percentaged across read across the table may explain levels of measurement 0 points QUESTION 28 To calculate the mean for grouped data which of the following steps must be completed? multiply the number of subjects within each category by the value of that category divide the results of the multiplication multiply by the number of subjects multiply each large number with the smaller numbers 0 points QUESTION 29 Bivariate and multivariate analyses are aimed primarily at _____. description exploration Explanation application 0 points QUESTION 30 Which of the following would be an inappropriate manner to report findings on the variable gender? Median mode raw numbers percentages 0 points QUESTION 31 Which of the following is an accurate statement? if the mean is much higher than the mode it indicates that there are no extreme cases if the standard deviation is high it indicates that there is no variability if the mean is the same as median it indicates that the mode will be higher. Whenever the mean is much higher than the mode it indicates that the mean is distorted 0 points QUESTION 32 The sum of squared deviations from the mean divided by the number of cases is the _____. Variance range the sum of the squared variance standard deviation 0 points QUESTION 33 Which of the following is a test of statistical significance? regression chi square gamma lambda 0 points QUESTION 34 Measures of central tendency include all except _____. standard deviation median mean mode QUESTION 35 In univariate analysis missing data can be reported in several different ways. a. True b. False 0 points QUESTION 36 With respect to standard deviation which of the following statements is not correct? the total deviation is zero the average deviation is zero the value can range from negative 1 to positive 1 the sum of the deviations from the mean will always be zero 0 points QUESTION 37 Which of the following is true concerning the use of multivariate tables? they are constructed in different manner than a bivariate tables they include only one independent variable The dependent variable is explained in terms of more than one independent variable subgroups are generally described as subsamples in the table 0 points QUESTION 38 When we generalize from samples to larger populations we use inferential statistics to test the significance of an observed relationship. a. True b. False

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