The Public Speaking Sample Assistant T H E P R E PA R AT I O N O U T L I N E
Here is a relatively detailed preparation outline similar to the outline you might prepare when constructing your speech. The side notes should clarify both the content and the format of a preparation outline. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN CULTURE SHOCKED?
Thesis: Culture shock can be described in four stages. Purpose: To inform my audience of the four phases of culture shock. INTRODUCTION
I. How many of you have experienced culture shock? A. Many people experience culture shock, a reaction to being in a culture very different from what they were used to. B. By understanding culture shock, you’ll be in a better position to deal with it if and when it happens. II. Culture shock occurs in four stages (Oberg, 1960). A. The Honeymoon occurs first. B. The Crisis occurs second. C. The Recovery occurs third. D. The Adjustment occurs fourth. [Let’s follow the order in which these four stages occur beginning with the first stage, the honeymoon.] BODY
I. The Honeymoon occurs first. A. The Honeymoon is the period of fascination with the new people and culture. B. You enjoy the people and the culture. 1. You love the people. a. For example, the people in Zaire spend their time very differently from the way New Yorkers do. b. For example, my first 18 years living on a farm was very different from life in a college dorm. 2. You love the culture. a. The great number of different religions in India fascinated me. b. Eating was an especially great experience. [But like many relationships, contact with a new culture is not all honeymoon; soon there comes a crisis.] II. The Crisis occurs second. A. The Crisis is the period when you begin to experience problems. 1. One-third of American workers abroad fail because of culture shock (Samovar, Porter, & McDaniel, 2008). 2. The personal difficulties are also great. Generally, the title, thesis, and purpose of the speech are prefaced to the outline. When the outline is an assignment that is to be handed in, additional information may be required. Note the general format for the outline; the headings are clearly labeled, and the indenting helps you see the relationship between the items. For example, in introduction II, the outline format helps you to see that A, B, C, and D are explanations for II. Note that the introduction, body, and conclusion are clearly labeled and separated visually. Although the speaker assumes that the audience is familiar with culture shock, he or she still includes a brief definition in case some audience members don’t know what it is and to refresh the memory of others. Note that references are integrated throughout the outline, just as they would be in a term paper. In the actual speech, the speaker might say, “Anthropologist Kalervo Oberg, who coined the term culture shock, said it occurs in four stages.” The introduction serves two functions: It gains attention by involving the audience and by stressing the importance of the topic in the audience’s desire to gain self-understanding, and it orients the audience to what is to follow. This particular orientation identifies both the number and the names of the stages. If this speech were much longer and more complex, this orientation might also have included brief definitions of each stage. Another function often served by the introduction is to establish a relationship among yourself as the speaker, the topic, and the audience. In this particular speech, this function might have been served by your telling the audience how you experienced culture shock and how knowing the stages helped you cope with the difficulties. You might then tell the audience that the same would be true for them and thus connect all three major elements of the speech. The transition at the end of the introduction tells the audience to expect a four-part presentation. Also, the numbers repeated throughout the outline will further aid the audience in keeping track of where you are in the speech. Most important, the transition tells the audience that the speech will follow a temporal thought pattern. Notice the parallel structure throughout the outline. For example, note that I, II, III, and IV in the body are all phrased in exactly the same way. Although this may seem unnecessarily repetitive, it will help your audience follow your speech more closely and will also help you structure your thoughts logically. Notice that there are lots of examples in this speech. These examples are identified only briefly in the outline and would naturally be elaborated on in the speech. When you cite a specific fact, some style manuals require that you include the page number in the source reference. 248 CHAPTER 12 Public Speaking Preparation and Delivery (Steps 7–10) 6914_Ch12_pp239-265.qxd 11/16/09 1:17 PM Page 249 The Public Speaking Sample Assistant (continued) B. Life becomes difficult in the new culture. 1. Communication is difficult. 2. It’s easy to offend people without realizing it. [As you gain control over the various crises, you begin to recover.] III. The Recovery occurs third. A. The Recovery is the period when you learn how to cope. B. You begin to learn intercultural competence (Lustig & Koester, 2010). 1. You learn how to communicate. a. Being able to go to the market and make my wants known was a great day for me. b. I was able to ask for a date. 2. You learn the rules of the culture. a. The different religious ceremonies each have their own rules. b. Eating is a ritual experience in lots of places throughout Africa. [Your recovery leads naturally into the next and final stage, the adjustment.] IV. The Adjustment occurs fourth. A. The adjustment is the period when you come to enjoy the new culture. B. You come to appreciate the people and the culture. [Let me summarize, then, the stages you go through in experiencing culture shock.] CONCLUSION I. Culture shock can be described in four stages. A. The Honeymoon is first. B. The Crisis is second. C. The Recovery is third. D. The Adjustment is fourth. II. By knowing the four stages, you can better understand the culture shock you may now be experiencing on the job, at school, or in your private life. REFERENCES Lustig, M. W., & Koester, J. (2010). Intercultural competence: Interpersonal communication across cultures (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Oberg, K. (1960). Culture shock: Adjustment to new cultural environments. Practical Anthropology, 7, 177–182. Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E., & McDaniel, E. R. (2008). Communication between cultures, 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage. This reference list includes only those sources that appear in the completed speech.
Notice, too, the internal organization of each major point. Each main assertion in the body contains a definition of the stage (I.A, II.A, III.A, and IV.A) and examples (I.B, II.B, III.B, and IV.B) to illustrate the stage. Note that each statement in the outline is a complete sentence. You can easily convert this outline into a phrase or key word outline to use in delivery. The full sentences, however, will help you see relationships among items more clearly. Transitions are inserted between all major parts of the speech. Although they may seem too numerous in this abbreviated outline, they will be appreciated by your audience because the transitions will help them follow your speech. Notice that these four points correspond to II.A, B, C, and D of the introduction and to I, II, III, and IV of the body. Notice how the similar wording adds clarity. This step provides closure; it makes it clear that the speech is finished. It also serves to encourage reflection on the part of the audience as to their own experience of culture shock. Step 8: Construct Your Conclusion and Introduction
The Public Speaking Sample Assistant T H E P R E PA R AT I O N O U T L I N E
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