# To make meaningful causal inferences when conducting quantitative analyses one must employ??

Question 1) To make meaningful causal inferences when conducting quantitative analyses one must employ?? A. T-Tests and Analysis of Variance methods B. Random assignment of participants to treatment and control conditions C. Parametric methods of analysis robust in relationship to violation of basic assumptions D. Dummy coding when using regression models 2) Parametric procedures of quantitative analysis make an underlying assumption that?? A. The variables are measured at least at an ordinal level B. The underlying distribution of data is approximately normal C. All responses are measured in a mutually exclusive manner D. Dichotomous variables have been ?smoothed? 3) A well known non-parametric analysis procedure for working with nominal levels of measurement where only frequencies (counts) and reflected in the formula?? A. Pearson r B. Chi Square C. Chronbach?s Alpha D. Spearman?s Rho 4) Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results in the calculation of the F Statistic and interpretation of this statistic will inform you as to?? A. How the variables are associated with each other B. How many means differ significantly from the ?Grand Mean? C. Whether one or more of the means is significantly different from one or more of the others in the study D. Which mean significantly differs from others 5) A quantitative analysis method which aggregates a number of (similar) individual studies into a large data set from which to compute an over all ?effect size? (based on similar study procedures and treatments) is commonly known as?? A. Survival analysis B. Confirmatory factor analysis C. Principal components analysis D. Meta-Analysis 6) The number of scores that are free to vary when estimating a population parameter from a sample is known as?? A. Degrees of Evidence B. Essential Components Analysis (ECA) C. Degrees of Freedom D. Dichotomous Variables 7) A quantitative analytical procedure used to evaluate (test) for the difference between two or more group means is commonly known as?? A. Regression B. Chi Square C. Partial Correlation D. Analysis of Variance 8) To make causal inferences from observed differences between groups based on varied levels of treatment it is necessary to?? A. Use T-test or ANOVA procedures to conduct the analysis B. Have random assignment of participants to treatment levels and control conditions as a basis of design prior to conducting analyses C. Deploy at least a quasi-experimental design D. Find significant differences between groups at at-least the .05 level 9) Decision rules in quantitative analysis are set by?? A. Mentors B. Deans C. Researchers D. Conventional Wisdom 10) Structural Equation Modeling involves subcomponent analysis characteristics of both?? A. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis procedures B. ANOVA and ANCOVA C. Regression and Factor Analysis D. T-Tests and Correlations 11) In ?Regression Analysis? the Multiple R Squared ?R2? may be interpreted as?? A. The standard deviation of the dependent variable B. The correlation between the predictor variables C. The ?F ratio? associated with the difference between means D. The percentage of variance explained in the response variable by knowing the values of the combined predictor variables 12) A study that uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to study a particular topic or area is known as?? A. Mixed Methods Research B. Common Analytical Procedures C. Factorial Design Research D. Principal Components Research 13) A procedure in regression analysis where Predictor or Independent Variables are coded as 1 or 0 (representing categories) and can be used to produce ANOVA Tables under the General Linear Model is known as?? A. Survival coding B. Bi-variate coding C. Mixed coding D. Dummy coding 14) The ?standard deviation of the sample score? divided by the ?square root of the sample size? is the formula for computing the?? (i.e.) A. Variance B. Absolute Deviation C. Standard Error D. Coefficient of Determination 15) A conservative correction method for inflated ?Alpha values? based on multiple comparisons being carried out independently on a specific data set is known as?? A. Tukey?s honestly significant differences (HSD) B. Post Hoc testing C. Bonferroni correction D. Ad Hoc testing 16) The circumstance where the Null Hypothesis is rejected when it is actually true is known as?? A. Experimental incongruence B. Mundane realism C. Type II Error D. Type I Error 17) A procedure for interpreting where a ?true score? in a distribution falls on a basis of probability within a defined range is known as?? A. Reliability bands B. Probabilistic projection C. Maximum likelihood D. Confidence intervals 18) In ANOVA the ?error variance? is typically reflected in?? A. Between group variance B. Within group associations C. Within group variance D. Between group differences 19) When conducting an inferential statistical analysis and applying a conventional ?critical p- value? of .05 the odds of making a Type I Error and ?rejecting a true Null Hypothesis? is?? A. 1 in 10 B. 1 in 20 C. 1 in 100 D. 1 in 30 20) In conducting multiple regression analyses (MRAs) a major technical concern involves any high correlation of predictor (regressor) variables included in the model. The term for this is?? A. Close ?knit? IVs B. Multicollinearity C. Correlative dysfunction D. Redundant predictors 21) All ?Factorial ANOVAs? share the characteristic of?? A. Having two or more independent variables B. Relying on post hoc procedures to reject the Null Hypothesis C. Applying corrections for multiple comparisons D. Having one dependent variable 22) Under conditions where a large sample is used in experimental research and ?power? of a statistical test is maximized it is possible to have statistically significant results yet a fairly small?? A. Set of assumptions B. Ethical concern C. Standard Deviation D. Effect size 23) Most basic forms of quantitative analysis look at __________ and __________ among groups as measured on specified sets of variables. A. Commonality functionality B. Specifics generality C. Associations differences D. Inferences explanations 24) Nonparametric procedures for quantitative analyses tend to be?? A. Less powerful in detecting significant differences than parametric procedures B. More powerful in detecting significant differences than parametric procedures C. More dependent on the shape of distributions than parametric procedures D. Equally powerful in detecting significant differences than parametric procedures 25) Time to event analyses involve the analysis of time differences from onset to termination event for cases included in a study and exposed to different conditions or treatments. The common name for this analysis is?? A. Survival analysis B. Meta Analysis C. Principal components analysis D. Confirmatory factor analysis

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